Kitchen plays a special role in the life of every person. Here they gather with the whole family, cook and eat food, discuss the results of the past day. Accordingly, the room should be cozy, comfortable. Everyone determines for himself the level of comfort. It manifests itself in the rational use of living space, style of the room, properly selected lighting, the availability of accessories, kitchen appliances, furniture.
Progress leads to an acceleration of the pace of human life, the emergence of complex mechanisms that perform part of the manual work. Many things that were considered relevant several decades ago were outdated, but new ones appeared, mostly electric ones. This circumstance led to a greater consumption of electricity, a lack of available outlets. The increase in electrical outlets in most cases is associated with a major overhaul, which begins with a project that takes into account various factors.
Standards for installing sockets in the kitchen
Power sockets are applied in each room of the house, apartment. They feed various electrical appliances. In the kitchen, equipment is used that constantly needs electricity: a refrigerator, an electric oven, a hob, a dishwasher, an oven. Due to the increased danger in this living space, the location of the sockets is approached very responsibly, based on the following regulatory documents:
- GOST 7397.0-89 (General specifications for switches);
- GOST 7396.1-89 (Main dimensions of plug connectors);
- GOST 8594-80 (General TU for switch boxes, sources with hidden wiring);
- SNiP 3.05.06-85 (Electrotechnical devices).
From the above list, we consider the main points that need to be paid first of all when drawing up a plan:
- Free access. The source of electricity is set so that the distance to the appliance does not exceed one meter.
- Safety use. For each powerful device it is necessary to draw a separate line. Installation height should be more than two centimeters from the baseboard. It is required to exclude a possibility of hit of liquid. Electric points are installed out of the reach of children.
- Proper planning. There should be additional sources to which you can later connect the necessary devices. When designing, the possibility of laying wiring near the pipeline, ventilation, water supply should be avoided.
The quick-connect connector used to power the hood must be located under the ceiling. However, it cannot be hidden behind the corrugation, installed at a distance closer than half a meter from the window.
Calculation of power appliances
Before starting repair work, at the time of design, you should decide on the number of used electrical appliances, also consider the options for installing additional elements in the future. This will allow you to calculate the cross section of the cable being laid, the number of electrical points, the methods of wiring. For each individual device, the power indicators will be individual, depending on its type, class, manufacturer. However, as an example, you can use the averaged values, on the basis of which you can make the necessary calculations, make a reserve for the ultimate load by increasing the diameter of the core.
Table of average energy consumption of kitchen appliances:
|Name||power, kWt||Hours minutes per day|
The main load is created by large equipment, for which a separate cable should be provided. When making calculations, it is necessary to take into account the possibility of connecting all the elements at the same time, including taking into account the use of additional items, such as a laptop, TV.
What cable to choose for wiring
After completing the calculation of the power consumption of all electrical devices, you can proceed to the choice of the type of cable products, determining the required cross-section of the wires. To do this, we use the data from the table of permissible currents.
Aluminum cable has long been not used for wiring in private homes and apartments. It is better to use more expensive, very reliable copper wires. With the same diameter of the core, they withstand heavy loads, have less resistance, do not break. This is especially true for kitchen space, consuming up to half of all electricity in the house.
|Cable section, mm²||Padded open||Located in the pipe|
|Current loads, A||power, kWt||Current loads, A||power, kWt|
Popular types of sockets for the kitchen
Proper planning, placement of electrical points, proper compliance with all requirements during installation will create a functional room. The appearance of the kitchen space can emphasize the competent choice of the appropriate type of sockets. Manufacturers offer many options, among which there are models of the following types:
- Overhead. Installation and disassembly is carried out with minimal time and cost. The best option when installing new high-power appliances, when the available capacity is not enough, and a complete repair is impractical. They are not popular, they spoil the overall appearance of the kitchen set, sometimes they interfere with the process.
- Corner. Very convenient option. Designed for installation at the junction of two surfaces, walls and kitchen cabinets, countertops. Products have an elegant, original design. They are made mainly of plastic, both single and modular models are produced.
- Retractable. Characterized by aesthetic qualities. They are produced in blocks, have additional outputs for charging, connecting various accessories. Depending on the location of the structure are divided into horizontal, vertical. Convenient to use. You can build in countertops, walls, even the floor. If it is necessary to connect the mechanism, it is enough to press the cover of the case, after which the block slowly moves out. Among the drawbacks can be identified the inconvenience of connecting the side plugs to the perpendicular to the floor installations.
- Hidden (embedded). Allow to secure a workplace. Located in cabinets, drawers, table top. Save space. Used as additional points. Divided into single and double (in practice, rarely used) models.
The correct location of the electrical points depends on the right scheme. Planning must be carried out on the basis of the finished kitchen design, which will help to avoid problems in the future, for example, the sockets may be closed by a refrigerator or an oven. In order to prevent this, to make an exact installation, a plan of kitchen furniture is taken, on which designations are made. They can be performed by hand, adhering to the general rules:
- Electric points should be located in accessible places, so that in case of replacement, repair, cleaning equipment, it is easy to disconnect from the power supply.
- It is necessary to start marking with large and built-in household appliances, which are installed for a long time, their movement is not planned in the near future. It is forbidden to install sockets in the kitchen directly behind the appliances, it is better to place them side by side on the wall, to hide behind the walls of neighboring cabinets.
- For simultaneous connection of the electric cooker and oven, the use of double connectors is not allowed.
- Installed above the tabletop, hidden, corner designs are used to connect small electrical appliances: kettle, blender, toaster, meat grinder.
Determine the amount
Calculate the total number of required outlets for the kitchen room is not difficult. It is the power to make each one independently. It is enough to use simple arithmetic, count the number of used electrical appliances to determine how many electro points are required:
- Electric stove;
- Water heater;
- Exhaust hood;
- Electric kettle;
- Additional devices (blender, coffee maker, juicer);
- Other components (TV, auxiliary lighting).
After completing the counting of all items, we add the stock, you need to increase the amount received by a quarter. At the same time, the cost of work will increase, but in the future, when new devices appear, no additional wiring will be required, which is not always possible.
How to determine placements and distances
Having defined the preliminary scheme, having made the calculation of the required number, we proceed to the solution of the issue of the location and indents of the sockets. To do this, you need to make an accurate detailed drawing of the kitchen, plan in it the specific dimensions of the installed objects, depicting them in the form of geometric shapes. For the correct location of connectors, it is desirable to adhere to the scheme consisting of three levels:
- Lower. Electrical points are set at a height of 30 cm above the floor. They feed large electrical appliances.
- Average. Designed to connect to the network of the main part of the equipment. A socket and a switch at a height of up to 20 cm can be positioned above the working surface.
- Upper. Installation begins at 2 meters. The main purpose is to power the hood, additional lighting.
Based on the recommendations previously performed calculations, you can proceed to the transfer of elements on the sweep walls. For each appliance should follow certain rules.
Manufacturers advise to place the socket block directly below the product, to hide the point. This is necessary so that the plug does not interfere with other equipment. This location is inconvenient, access to the connector is difficult. If the equipment is planned to be disconnected frequently, it is better to install at the level of the working area. However, it is also worth considering the design of the appliance:
- Freestanding models. It can be installed directly behind the fridge, but in practice it is more convenient to indent into either side by 5 cm. This will ensure a free approach, if necessary, turn off the device, it will not have to be moved.
- Built-in options. Installation height varies between 20-75 cm, indented to the side - up to 20 cm. The best place is the adjacent cabinet.
Much depends on the type and manufacturer of this product. For low-cost open-type models, a direct connection is provided when the cable is started and connected via terminal blocks. The method is unsafe, such installation is not recommended. It is much more difficult to disconnect the device from the power supply. Requires additional calculations for the place of output wiring.
The second option involves the use of the plug. In this case, the sockets are installed at a height of 2-2.5 meters. If the ventilation pipe is closed by the cabinet, then it is most acceptable to arrange the electrical point inside, departing from the chimney 20 cm. In this arrangement, special blocks are often used to power the additional lighting.
For a powerful installation, you can connect directly through a special power outlet. At the same time, the RCD + automatic is installed in the shield. The second option is more convenient; if necessary, turn off the device, for example, during wet cleaning, just pull the plug.
With direct connection, you need to make the correct cable connection. When powered through a stationary connector, it is necessary to determine a place for it. The optimum height from the floor should not exceed 90 cm. It is also forbidden to install the rear panel at the same level as the panel. His lead to one of the parties. If there is an oven under the surface, the installation is performed below its level.
It is not recommended to install close to the floor. Flooding, water leakage can lead to unpleasant consequences.
For the oven
Unlike cooktops, ovens are equipped with standard forks. When they are connected, the presence of a stationary electrical point is sufficient. The main thing is that each installation should have its own separate line.
If the cabinet is located under the electric stove, then the optimum height from the floor to the outlet is 15-20 cm, while the same distance is chosen when indenting to one of the sides. In the case of the use of freestanding structures located at chest level, the electric point can be installed in a locker located below at a height of up to 75 cm.
The installation of the equipment itself is tied to engineering communications, namely the supply of pipes and water drainage to the sewage system. Therefore, the technique is located in close proximity to the sink. According to regulatory documents, placing sockets above or under the sink is unacceptable, it is also prohibited for the subject under consideration. The slightest leakage can cause short circuits and fire.
Connection can be made directly from the panel, but always through a bunch of RCD + automatic. If the power goes through the plug, then an adjacent cabinet will be the best place to place the point, it will serve as additional protection. You can make the installation on the wall, departing from the floor to a height of 20-40 cm, no more than one meter away from the appliance.
For washing machine
Also like a dishwasher, this technique applies to high-risk appliances. Requires the presence of underwater and diversion communications. The principle of connection, both to the sewage system and to the power grid, is identical to the example discussed above.
The most convenient way to use both items in a pair, when they are located on opposite sides of the sink. If this is not possible, you can pick up a compact model of the dishwasher and place it on top of the washing machine. In this case, you can perform the distribution of electrical points on the same level.
For sockets of the working area and above the table top
The largest number of stationary connectors located above the working surface. They feed small electrical appliances. At the planning stage, it is necessary to pay special attention to this moment. It is necessary to think in advance about which technique will be used. Subsequently, such actions will make the cooking process comfortable.
The height of the table top can reach 90 cm above the floor. On top of it is a wall, the distance from which to the upper cabinets is 60 cm. It is this gap that is used to place the sockets, here they must be distributed. Corner models can be installed at the junction of any two surfaces, indented from gas devices and 50 cm sinks (this also applies to wall outlets). Sliding options are mounted in the work plane. For structures located on the wall, the distance from the table top should be more than 5 cm. Consider the presence of built-in equipment located in the upper cabinets; it is better to use hidden points for these products.
How to mount sockets
Installation depends on the model. The easiest is to install outdoor options. The principle of operation consists in the external installation of the cable from the shield to the installation point of the electrical point marked on the plan, which is simply attached to the wall surface with the help of self-tapping screws. Such a choice spoils the interior space.
For internal outlets, the installation principle is fundamentally different. In this case, the process is as follows:
- According to the drawing, markings are made on the surface of the walls, the kitchen apron, the points of location of all the nodes are marked, lines for the wiring of the copper cable are plotted.
- Using a shaborez, a groove is dug in the wall along the outlined lines, where the wiring is subsequently laid, plastered with plaster.
- At the locations of the electro points, holes are made using a perforator with a round nozzle, a sub-socket is installed in them, which must be well fixed, after which the wiring is started.
- Next, the outlet is fixed to the conductors with the help of phase contacts, installed in the socket, check the performance.
Features of installation of the sockets which are built in on a table-top
The installation procedure is simple, you can do it yourself. There are horizontal and vertical models. The first ones are the most popular, but less practical, the second one does not provide for the connection of side plugs. However, despite the different designs, the installation for both mortise options is similar, is as follows:
- Before starting work, the required area is de-energized; for protection, you can additionally wear special rubber gloves.
- For structures of vertical type, a nozzle for a perforator is selected with the appropriate diameter, which is drilled with a hole in the tabletop. Horizontal views require rectangular holes that can be made with a drill and jigsaw.
- Having established the socket in the prepared place, it is necessary to fix it by means of clips, self-tapping screws, other fasteners.
- Соединение с электросетью можно сделать, используя обычную штепсельную вилку, проложив отдельный кабель.
- На завершающем этапе остается только проверить работоспособность изделия.
Рекомендации по проводке и автоматам
В зависимости от мощности электроприбора выбирается сечение кабеля. From its diameter depends on what the maximum current can pass through the wires, not causing them to overheat. To choose the optimal cross section, you can use Ohm's law and other rules of electrodynamics.
- For 220 volt network
I = (L1 + L2 + ... + Ln) / 220, where:
I - current strength;
(L1 + L2 + ... + Ln) - the total power of all devices.
- For mains 380 volts
I = (L1 + L2 + ... + Ln) / √3 / 380.
Using these formulas, you can make a simplified calculation, the standard load value is taken into account, the norm for Cu is 10 A / mm², and for Al - 8 A / mm². To make accurate calculations, it is necessary to take into account the cable length, specific resistance, power factor correction, allowable load value.
The best option for devices with a consumption of up to 3.5 kW will be a three-core copper cable with a cross section of 2.5 mm² and a 16 A circuit breaker, if the total consumption reaches 7.2 kW, then veins with a diameter of 6 mm² are used, the circuit breaker is set to 32 BUT.
The kitchen, as well as the bathroom, is a room with high humidity, therefore, an RCD is installed in front of each automatic machine. Sockets must be grounded, must comply with IP 44 protection class, be made of ceramic. To large powerful consumers a separate line is drawn.
What mistakes should be avoided
The accuracy of the correct installation work is very important. Security depends on it. Due to inexperience, many make mistakes, especially when they do everything with their own hands. There are minor issues that can cause a maximum of inconvenience during operation, but the rough ones are fraught with serious consequences. To avoid this, consider the most common mistakes:
- Do not install the wiring until a clear plan, with a detailed drawing of all kitchen elements.
- For many household appliances, manufacturers make a ban on their connection to the network through carrying. Therefore, when choosing an installation point for an electrical point, it is necessary to make accurate calculations, calculate the cable length, the object width, and take into account the direction of the outlet of the cord.
- It is recommended to use RCD or differential circuit for any line. However, there are cases that they are not placed even for items directly related to water, for example, a boiler, washing machine, dishwasher.
- Particular attention should be paid when choosing the place of installation of the outlet, it must meet all standards. A common mistake is to install them under the sink, near gas pipes, above the cooking surfaces.
- At a height of 25 cm from the floor level, water is usually wired to the wall if the sink or dishwasher is removed from the common sewer. Without knowing the exact location, it is better to install electrical connectors according to European standards at a height of 30 cm.
Manufacturers produce a large range of products represented by different models. If you correctly select the elements that match the style of the room, you can emphasize the interior of the room. For installation, it is necessary to draw up a drawing, accurately calculate the cross section of the cable cores, select the optimal location, and carry out the correct installation and wiring. The work can be done independently, but in order to avoid mistakes and inaccuracies, it is better to entrust it to specialists.