Canopy - the roof, located on the supports. This is a non-insulated stationary structure designed to protect the local area from precipitation, rays emanating from the sun. It is often used to park a car, in summer you can place a table under it, organize a recreation area in the shade.
Production of a canopy can be made according to different schemes. They differ in roof construction, materials used, installation method (attached, cantilever).
Types of designs
The extension to the house must be functional, correspond to the exterior of the building. Properly designed canopy will protect not only from rain, sunlight, it will be a beautiful addition to the overall design of the building. There are several types of roof construction, it can be:
- Straight. Used for fencing vehicles from rain. It can be installed on the terraces, serve as an additional design for the entrance to the house;
- Downhill. Share on odnoskatny, duo-pitch. The planes are made at an angle for the runoff of water, the descent of snow. The slope is located on the leeward side, which reduces the possibility of a roof breaking down;
- Figured. Dome, arched, tent, compositionally complex structures are used.
Depending on the method of construction, canopies are divided into separate, attached, cantilever cantilever. According to the installation option and method of attachment, they can be divided into:
- Supporting. Install vertically or at an angle to the wall on the supports. They have a different size, are built from any material: wood, metal, stone.
- Console. Using special pendants, the design is fixed directly on the wall. To reduce the pressure on the facade of the house, use lightweight materials for the manufacture of canopies, which serve to protect windows and doors from precipitation.
The materials used for the construction of the canopy
Choosing building materials for the construction of bearing elements, floors, it is necessary to comply with certain requirements. The type of extension must correspond to the general nature of the structure. The product must be durable, have resistance to mechanical damage. Racks should be made of wear-resistant materials that are protected against corrosion. To reduce the load on the support, choose a light coating. It takes into account the fact that the bandwidth of the sun's rays.
Materials for the frame and supports
The frame is the main structural element, it bears the entire load, so durable materials are used in its manufacture. Consists of separate parts fastened together (beams, supports, trusses, rods). The main materials for this framework are:
- Metal. The skeleton is assembled from metal, galvanized pipes, profiles. The joints are connected by welding, special rivets. The frame may have a complex shape, contain forging elements. Installation of metal structures can be done by hand, while working does not require much construction experience. To prevent corrosion, which are susceptible to metal products, they are covered with a layer of primer and painted. Among the advantages of such bases can be identified increased strength, reliability, long service life, resistance to environmental influences. Among the shortcomings - susceptibility to oxidation, with improper processing or lack thereof.
- Tree. A wooden box is constructed from a log, a bar. Apply to a lathing laths, lining, boards. The material is easy to handle, is environmentally friendly, natural. The disadvantages include the weak resistance of raw materials to the environment. It can absorb moisture or crack, while the wood is deformed. The tree is prone to rotting, flammable, is a breeding ground for various insects. To avoid negative impacts, wood is coated with varnishes, special solutions, painted.
- Forged support. The most expensive type of frame, comparable in value to stainless steel supports, which are welded by special welding - argon. The skeleton may consist entirely of forged parts, they can complement other designs. Differs in durability, a special, unique look. Elements can be relatively light, while having good flexibility.
- Stone or brick. You can find brick frames, very rarely of stone. Such a foundation is used for fundamental construction. It is durable and durable. Stone structures are built for a very long time, however, the characteristics significantly exceed the various properties of analogues.
It is not necessary to build a wooden shed over the barbecue, barbecue, a tree near the fire can heat up and deform, catch fire.
Ways of fastening a wooden frame
Sheds that have a wooden skeleton can be fixed by the edge directly to the facade of the building, and the second can be placed on the supporting beams. Not all structures are attached to the wall; they can only stand on support pillars. Small curtain rods can be mounted directly to the wall.
The first thing to do is to fix the support logs and beams. They can be installed in several ways: to concrete, fasten to the screed, concrete, wooden base with the help of a metal thrust bearing.
In the presence of a carrier beam, located vertically, a marking is applied on the wall of the structure, on which the support is fixed with self-tapping screws. To reinforce such a structure, it is supplemented with special triangular structures supporting floor beams.
Fastening the rails to the bearing posts is carried out with the help of nails, screws, self-tapping screws, galvanized metal plates. Also in the racks make special grooves on both sides, which are attached to the support beams. The corners are reinforced with metal jumpers, corners.
The construction market offers a wide variety of roofing materials used in the construction of canopies. You can cover the roof with polycarbonate, acrylic glass, metal-plastic, other sheet materials. Each type of skin has its own characteristics. To do this, take a look at the most popular coatings:
Metal profile is another name for professional flooring, professional sheet. It is a steel sheet with a galvanized coating. Roofing decking is made more rigid to withstand the load of snow, the roofing sheet also differs in the way of joining - the docking is done with overlap. Roofs of a private house, summer houses, gazebos, terraces, garages, hangars, canopies, are even covered with metal profiles. They are even used as a fence. At application of a professional flooring receive a strong design which does not pass moisture and sunshine. The material is lightweight and low cost. When installing requires a flat surface. It is not recommended to walk on it, as there may be dents on it. If cracks appear during installation, they should be painted over, otherwise the sheet will start to rust. Also the professional sheet differs in low sound insulation, thermal insulation.
Polycarbonate - a good option to cover the veranda, pool, outbuildings. The material is durable, it can be used in all climatic zones. Several types of this raw material are produced, each of which has characteristic differences:
- Cell - the most common. Differs cellular structure of different sizes. It is covered with a special layer of film, which is glued to the front side and protects it from sunlight;
- Monolithic - rarely used, requires a reinforced frame, which significantly increases the cost of the building as a whole;
- Profiled - made from solid sheets. It has increased resistance to bending.
Polycarbonate - synthetic raw materials. It is lightweight, high strength, resistant to precipitation. The material is transparent, comparable to glass. It is soundproof, due to the presence of a special coating does not transmit ultraviolet light. Among the disadvantages, it is possible to distinguish its expansion when heated, and the destruction of the structure under the influence of alkalis. During installation, you must adhere to certain requirements: the polycarbonate sheet is laid so that the protective film is on top; fasten with screws with a mandatory indent from the edge of at least five millimeters. Due to the low weight of the product, it can be laid on a lightweight frame.
Metal tile - is obtained by molding sheet metal, which is covered with protective compounds and special primers. Mainly used steel, very rarely - copper, aluminum (on request). Different products according to the type of protective-coloring coating, which consists of: glossy (PE), matte (MPE) polyester; plastisol (PVC); glossy (PUR), matte (MatPUR) pural; polydifluoride (PVF, PVDF).
The material is very durable, reliable. Unlike a professional flooring, it is resistant to the formation of corrosion, various mechanical damage. Well isolates a sound, does not pass heat. It is easily cut by the grinder, and in its absence, you can use regular metal shears. Placed sheets from the bottom edge with an overlap on each other.
The wooden lattice is a double frame, with a grid of planks fixed inside. Used to create partitions, has a decorative function for gazebos, terraces, verandas, patios. It differs in the way of crossing of the rails, it can have the form of a rectangular, diagonal weaving.
To create a lattice using different wood species - oak, pine, birch, larch, and others. As an independent overlap is not used. For shelter canopy it is better to use materials made of wood, such as tes, plowshares, shingles, shingles, spindle. However, such constructions will differ in a rather high price.
The marquise is a canopy made of cloth, located above the window, balcony, entrance to the house, used as protection from the sun's rays. She creates a shadow. It is a covered visor. This coating does not require vertical supports, as it is designed for mounting on the wall, with the exception of pergol awnings.
Depending on their location, marquises are divided into window, balcony, also terraced, pergolic ones. Each species is different in its design. The disadvantage of such products is their coating, because the fabric of any strength and processing at the end of time fade. Some structures have a lot of weight, so their placement takes into account the strength of the building material on which they will be fixed (foam block, a thick layer of plaster will not withstand such loads).
Fabric For sewing and shelter visors, canopies using different fabric materials. It is necessary that the fabric is not only sheltered from the sun, but also protected from rain. There are several:
- Tarpaulin. Traditional material. Differs in durability, small price, moisture resistance. However, the structures are heavy, have an unattractive appearance;
- PVC based fabric. It is lightweight, many colors. Of the disadvantages - it is easily torn, melts at high temperatures.
Materials for flooring under the canopy
The flooring located on the street (garden furniture, porch, attic) does not have heating. It is subject to the constant effects of temperature changes. Therefore, the choice fit responsibly. Materials must comply with certain qualities, such as moisture resistance, strength, wear resistance, frost resistance. Chipboard panels, linoleum will not work, but there are many materials that meet the requirements. Consider the most common:
- Wood flooring. Used board from whole logs. The flooring can be laid before the erection of a canopy or later. Preparation of the basis for a floor depends on it. Bearing beams can be laid directly on the ground, but if you want the design to serve for a long time, you need to make a quality base. It can be a cement screed, or tamped rubble, poured on agrofibre, which cover the ground. Having laid a crate on the base, the lamellas are nailed;
- Decking It is produced from solid wood or WPC (polymer-wood composite). Laying also produced on the crates. The board has its advantages and disadvantages, but the WPC is resistant to moisture, withstands temperature fluctuations, has a long service life, is not afraid of deformations;
- Paving slabs. Initially, a base is prepared, which consists of a layer of rubble, and sand is laid over the top, it is poured with water and rammed. According to the level represented by strained ropes, they lay paving slabs, pouring sand in places of shrinkage. The flooring is distinguished by high strength, it is not afraid of precipitation, it is neutral to temperature changes. It has many shapes and colors;
- Concrete flooring. Before pouring, a cushion of rubble is laid. If there is a need for increased strength, reinforcement is used. Borders, boards, flat slate, plywood are used as formwork. For beacons, it is desirable to use a metal profile. After pouring the concrete mix, it is leveled, stretching the rule over the beacons, letting the concrete dry. On the surface, you can create natural patterns.
What to consider when designing a canopy
Any construction begins with the creation of a drawing. At this stage, the design of the future structure is being considered, its size, the load on the base and the supporting beams is calculated, the required number of supports is calculated. Provides for the slope of the surface of the coating, the presence of drain Proper planning involves meeting certain requirements:
- The overhang height should be more than two meters;
- The skeleton of the structure should be made as simple as possible, do not load it with unnecessary details;
- It is required to measure the area occupied by a canopy;
- Consider the thickness of the bearing walls, the design of the main room, the presence of wind, the amount of seasonal precipitation;
- To choose the foundation should be based on the materials of the frame and cover;
- It is necessary to provide for the protection of individual elements from adverse effects (the use of impregnations, paints, antiseptics, protective varnishes);
- It is necessary to take into account the roof material, its ability to transmit light, a special fabric covering can be installed under it, which will be easily folded;
- When calculating additional lighting, consider the functional purpose of the structure;
- Consider the presence of the facade cladding (siding, decorative plaster), select the color of the porch cover, canopy.
Choosing a location
The protective function of the canopy is very important, but its location and compatibility with the design of the structure is also important. If the cottage, a country house, also located within the city, has not yet been built, in this case the canopy is installed separately from the erected structure. It is good to attach the structure to the facade of the house, directly at its wall.
If the size of the plot allows, then preference is given to a carport with a larger area, under which you can place several cars. This will perfectly solve the problem with relatives who came to visit the car, having a family of several cars. When choosing the side of the facade takes into account the windy side, the architectural differences of the house, sometimes its design does not allow to install the design from the front.
According to building codes, the distance between the canopy attached to the side wall and the end point of the site should be more than three meters.
Installation of a canopy with a wooden frame with your own hands
Such designs are found everywhere. They are used in the country, they can be attached to a private house, to observe even in the territory of factories. Many prefer such building materials as wood. This is due to its characteristics. Just work with him. Even with a huge selection of materials, wooden structures remain in trend.
Make a wooden shed to the house with your own hands possible. This will require drawing up a plan, purchasing building materials, having tools available for work, deciding on a place, and doing preparatory work.
Necessary tools and materials
Having finished with all the calculations, having decided on the quantity, you can proceed to the purchase of the missing building materials. When building hand-made structures, the materials must be taken with a small margin, this will avoid unpleasant situations with incorrect calculations. To start work, you will need the following building materials:
- Wooden floor beams, bearing supports, slats;
- Crushed stone, sand, wood, cement, geotextiles;
- Fasteners (corners, screws, bolts, etc.).
For the implementation of employment will require tools:
- Boer, shovel;
- Wheelbarrow, trolley;
- Old bath, concrete mixer;
- Hammer, ax, hacksaw;
- Drill, screwdriver, Bulgarian;
- Roulette, level.
A wooden-framed canopy does not require strong support. For him fit lightweight foundation. Use columnar, concrete. Usually a blind area is made around buildings. Поэтому несущие опоры, расположенные у стены, крепят непосредственно к ней.
Профессионалы рекомендуют подготавливать площадки, но можно обойтись без них. The creation of such bases begins with the removal of the upper layer of soil in the yard - up to thirty centimeters. The surface is treated with special solutions that do not allow residues of the root system of plants to grow, is covered with geotextile. Over it the layer of sand and crushed stone is poured. They need to fill with water, well rammed.
Pillar foundation is different from concrete. To fill it you need to dig a hole, drill a hole to the depth of soil freezing - up to one meter. The sewer plastic pipe is inserted into the received deepening, is leveled on level. The wooden beam can be concreted in a pipe, or attached to the screed after the foundation has dried. For the first case, the support is impregnated with varnishes, antiseptics, wraps with ruberoid from the bottom, and is wrapped with a film.
Concrete foundation poured into the trench. Deepen it by half a meter, and in width they dig for shovels with a bayonet - up to forty centimeters. The bottom should be covered with a layer of sand, crushed stone is poured over it. If necessary, make reinforcement. Concrete is poured onto the prepared base, at the same time laying down the bearing beams. Next, the foundation stands, dries, hardens. Only then can you proceed to the further installation of a wooden frame. The beams can be fixed on the surface of the concrete screed using a thrust bearing.
It is attached to a concrete foundation, a wooden base. To do this, use the heel, corner. To create a solid construction, all elements must be attached to the base at right angles, perpendicularly. Support beams can serve as a basis for only one side of the frame, in the case when the second rests directly on the facade, or to prop both sides, when installing supporting logs near the wall.
The type of the roof (single-pitch, gable, curved) depends on its structure. Shed roof - the most common, not costly option. At the final stage, they start creating crates, which are laid on trusses, trusses.
The coating is attached to the finished crate. The styling technology for each material is different. For example, a professional sheet, metal tiles are attached with screws, slate - special nails, fabrics - enough rail and industrial stapler. When attaching the material, it should be removed outside the base zone. These actions will create an additional fence against precipitation.
The roof does not require installation of a vapor barrier, as well as additional insulation. However, you can lay a layer of waterproofing. When attaching a different cover, it is enough to follow the instructions provided by the manufacturer.
Doing the flooring yourself will not be difficult. It all starts with a base on which the floor material can be laid. Wooden frame is desirable to combine with the same floor covering. Consider the option of laying wooden flooring:
- For the foundation of the flooring, you can use wooden beams, the size of which is comparable to the area of the canopy. They are laid out on the edge of the mounting racks. To align the base beams, you can put concrete blocks under them;
- Recesses are made under concrete substrates, crushed stones are poured under them, to obtain a level plane of the base used;
- After leveling the surface go to the installation stage of the lag, creating crates on which the flooring will be mounted;
- Floorboards can be attached to the finished structure. They are laid with a small gap.
- Since the boards do not always have the same height, they are ground;
- At the final stage, it is recommended to treat the surface with varnishes, stain, or paint.
A practical canopy can also be beautifully decorated. Give it your zest. There are many design options, for example:
- You can make a closed canopy by installing wooden lattices on the sides;
- Overlay bearing supports savage;
- Plant around ampelnye varieties of plants, grapes;
- Partially glaze the structure;
- Install a decorative fireplace inside;
- Decorate with wrought products;
- Decorate the structure with bright colors.
Build a base, build a frame, cover the shed roofing material - all actions can be done with your own hands. The presence of a huge selection of building materials that manufacturers offer allows you to create a visor for the house, a canopy for every taste. If desired, you can set the straight, curved shape of the roof, use a tree, a professional pipe as bearing supports. Create the necessary decor.