The 8 hectare plot landscape design is usually trusted by professionals, as the owners face a difficult task: placing a large number of buildings on a vast territory and creating a single stylistic picture. In addition to their own desires, it is also necessary to rely on the requirements that the state places on owners of private sites. The main minimum of buildings usually includes:
- Residential country house or cottage;
- Garden, individual beds, flower beds or garden;
- Gazebo and separate seating area;
- Garage or parking;
- Bath or summer shower;
- Outbuildings (storage room for firewood and garden equipment).
In the role of additions are the cellars, gazebos, swimming pools, decorative ponds. Without a well-designed plan, it is unlikely that it will be possible to create a well-maintained plot, the content of which will look harmonious.
Basics of plot arrangement
Landscape design is an entire science that cannot be comprehended in a couple of hours. The eight-acre dacha plot is considered to be quite spacious possession, which will fit all the objects necessary for living and recreation. At their location, they are guided not only by the convenience of moving from house to building, but also by the general rules of fire safety and sanitary norms. The interests of neighbors are also taken into account: the shadow of a building or a tall tree, for example, can block the yard. When planning, they are guided by the size of properties, their shape, and the features of the landscape. You need to familiarize yourself with the many nuances that will turn the design into a real puzzle, which not everyone can solve.
So, the site owner has an impressive area, which is a clean sheet. It is necessary to place all the necessary buildings and decorative objects. When planning them, it is necessary to rely not only on the basics of landscape design, which will provide the territory with a beautiful view, but also on legislation. Building, guided solely by its aesthetic taste, unfortunately, will not work. Otherwise, the owner is threatened with heavy fines and even requirements for demolition. The regulatory framework includes a set of documents regulating the construction of household and residential buildings. The owner of the site must be familiar with the three fundamental rules and regulations:
- Building and layout;
- Basics of fire safety;
- Sanitary code.
If you decide to take all the planning on yourself and not use ready-made plans or qualified designer help, you will still have to involve a consultant. Solely so that he assesses the project and points out errors if there are any. To pay for the work of a professional at this stage will be many times cheaper than rebuilding everything later.
Fire regulations are expressed in the regulations of the minimum allowable distance between buildings of different materials. When designing, be guided by the following figures:
- The buildings made of wood (baths, sheds) are positioned in such a way that the distance between them is at least 15 m;
- Houses made of stone, concrete and bricks, which belong to non-combustible materials, are built from analogs at a distance of 6 m. The minimum distance between them and the structures with added wooden floors will be 2 m more. The distance to timber-frame buildings is increased by another 2 m;
- Buildings made of non-combustible materials with wooden ceilings are installed from similar houses at a distance of 8 m. For buildings made of wood, the distance is increased by 2 m.
In addition to these standards, additional rules should be taken into account:
- From the suburban area and the border with neighbors observe a distance of at least 3 m;
- For buildings for economic needs, the distance is reduced by 2 m;
- From any type of building to the “red” street line must be at least 5 m.
To protect yourself from violations, it is necessary to outline the conditional internal contour on the plan, within which it is permissible to place structures.
In addition to fire regulations must also comply with sanitary. They are checked not only in order to avoid fines, but also for the sake of their own safety. Infectious diseases are often caused by human negligence. If the pipeline is not planned, then you need to be concerned about digging a well or drilling a well. The former will “feed” from the groundwater, which lies beneath the soil surface, and the latter will draw resources from the deeper layers. Purity of water will help ensure compliance with simple norms. Cesspools or compost pits, buildings for poultry and livestock should be placed at a distance of at least 12 m from the well or well.
In addition, a residential building must be located at a certain distance from buildings of various types:
- Country toilets on the street - at least 13 m;
- "Food" trash, landfill and compost heaps - from 9 m;
- Summer shower or bath - not less than 5 m;
- Other buildings that are designed for household needs - from 13 m and more.
There are also rules concerning the planting of trees and plants:
- Flower beds and bushes with a height of less than 0.5 m are planted at a distance of at least 1 m from the fence;
- Tall trees - from 4 m and beyond. So that over time their crown would not close the street or the backyards of their neighbors;
- Trees of medium height - from 2-3 m;
The garden and vegetable garden are recommended to adapt to the peculiarities of the landscape in such a way as to highlight its strengths and hide weaknesses.
Planning taking into account the configuration of the site
When planning, focus on two main aspects:
- Land plot landscape;
- Features of its form.
First, pay attention to the specifics of the landscape. Few who manage to acquire a perfectly flat piece of land. But any hills and lowlands can be beaten and emphasized so that they become virtues. For this reason, do not rush to level the surface, because a perfectly smooth area is a boring lot of perfectionists. Decorate the site with terraces, and in the future it will not only have a presentable appearance, but also give an excellent harvest. The fact is that with such a device, the ground will not be washed out, and the water will linger, which will benefit garden and gardening during dry periods and in the rainy season. With the shape of the site, alas, nothing can be done, so you have to adjust to it. There are about a dozen of its types, but we note three main ones:
- Square The most optimal form that will organically accommodate all buildings;
- Rectangular. A narrow, elongated plot involves the placement of all buildings "in a row." Although modern design solutions and smooth out the inconvenience, such possessions, as they say, an amateur;
- Triangular (corner). Typically, these sections intersect only with two adjacent and have access to the street and the roadway. It is not recommended to plant fruit trees near it or to break a garden, as road dust will settle not only on the leaves, but also on the fruits.
Location of parcel objects or zoning
All facilities should be grouped by type. The following functional areas are distinguished:
- Residential area, which is the conditional center of the entire site;
- Household structures for household purposes. Sheds, summer kitchens, baths, showers, garages, basements, wells and buildings for storing inventory;
- Area for gardening and horticulture (greenhouses, garden beds, flower beds, greenhouses, front gardens);
- Recreation area. Here you can include pools, ponds, gazebos, barbecue areas and barbecues.
It is not necessary to isolate each sector, they can partially overlap. For example, the recreation area is combined with a garden, which will allow in the summer to be under the canopy of trees. Differentiate zones in several ways:
- Conventionally with the help of decorative tracks;
- Low fences;
- "Living" hedge. Low bushes will add to the site a feeling of comfort;
- Combined method. Here combine different types of zoning.
Professionals advise to place farm buildings at the far end of the plot behind the house so that they do not catch the eye. Under the dream of any summer resident - the garden give the sunniest lawn. The garage usually has direct access to the street, so it is installed on one side of the house near the gate. In some cases, the fence "leaves" deep into the site, and place under the car allocate outside the fence. Do not forget to leave space for a "house" site, which is usually asphalted or paved with stone. To give an aesthetic appearance, this area is decorated with flowers.
Choosing a place under the house
In areas of square shape, houses are traditionally built in the center. Subsequently, they are surrounded by other buildings. On rectangular or trapezoidal possessions for a residential structure, the region is separated from the shortest side. In the corner areas, when choosing a building site, they are guided by the distance from the street, its noise and confusion. On the southern slopes, preference is given to the highest point. In this case, the shape of the plot goes into the background. Landlords on the northern slopes are less fortunate, but usually choose a place in the middle. Also, when designing a house, its placement relative to the cardinal points and the wind rose are taken into account.
Baths are classified into several popular species. On which of them will the choice of the owners fall, the question of exclusively personal preferences. The following types are distinguished:
- Russian. The modern bathhouse is a little similar to its “ancestors”, but the principle of soaring remains the same: with the help of moist air. It is better to heat such a room with firewood, respectively, you will need to allocate a separate place for their storage or a full shed. The Russian bath, as a rule, is made out with unique national color: it is finished with hewn logs and the shape more resembles a fabulous hut. It provides two main rooms: a waiting room and a steam room.
- Roman. Its design assumes the presence of three rooms: a laconium (with a high temperature), a tepidarium (it can be slightly cooled here) and a place with a mini-pool, where people come to cool completely. Modern Roman baths have a stylish look and are more like luxury apartments.
- Finnish. These saunas are popular in Europe. Soaring in them is due to dry steam, so the brooms on the sides here do not okhazhayut. Usually, Finnish baths are located close to water bodies. This can be either a pool or a pond in the area, or a separate exit to the river or a small lake outside the property.
- Hammam or Turkish bath. Traditionally consists of showers, steam rooms and dressing rooms. The steam in the hammam is hot and dry, you can spend it all day without harm to health.
- Japanese For lovers of the exotic, this type of bath is suitable, which is a large wooden bath with hot water designed for several people.
At the dacha preference is given to Finnish and Russian steam rooms. There are also mobile designs that are designed for two or three people. They are also called bath-barrels: compact buildings, which, if necessary, are transferred to another area of the site.
Even in ancient Russia, these buildings were located as far as possible from home. This was done because of superstition: supposedly a place where people wash off all the dirt should not be located next to the living room. Now this rule is observed due to elementary fire safety rules. Bath, as a rule, is made of wood, and the fire in it is bred at each visit.
Place for communication
After drawing on the plan of buildings, it is necessary to consider the location of lines of communication. At the cottage, they include:
- Water pipes;
- Sewage system
The best option is the location of communication pipes and cables under the garden paths. Pre-isolate them properly. Keep in mind that water supply and electricity will have to be carried out not only to a residential house, but also to other buildings, therefore the network itself will most likely have a branched structure. Place its “sleeves” on the project site in the form of straight lines to narrow the scope of work.
For the car build a full-fledged garage or parking space under a canopy. By location, they are classified into several types:
- Garage, which is built in a residential building. This method of location saves space, but will require good sound insulation so that the sounds of a running motor do not disturb the home ones. Of the merits they note general communications with the house, which will exclude additional expenses for their implementation. This room has two entrances: from the street and from the house.
- Extension. Usually created after the fact and has a common wall with the house.
- Separate structure. The option is relevant if the house is in a remote corner far from the gate.
The location of the garage is determined not only by the features of the site, but also by the number of cars. If there are several cars in the family, then it is more economical to arrange a separate parking.
Recreation area includes:
- The arbor. It usually adjoins the place for cooking kebabs or barbecue;
- Natural or artificial pond, swimming pool;
- A play area that is usually designed for children.
As a rule, a “deaf” place on the site, which is the most distant from the street and the roadway, is chosen under the recreation area. If the property is not fenced with a fence, then passers-by can interfere with intrusive looks, and the noise of cars will not allow to relax. To the area for recreation is usually adjacent garden or vegetable garden. The best place to put is in the far corner, which is fenced off from the neighbors.
Garden and horticulture place, focusing on the following features:
- The quality of the soil. Naturally for a good harvest choose the most fertile site. If the ground everywhere is poor and unsuitable for growing vegetables and fruits, then you will have to attend to the supply of land;
- Shine. Rows and greenhouses like direct sunlight, so they can not be placed in the shade of trees or buildings;
- Landscape. The water level and the slope of the plot are taken into account. On the hills will have to carry out regular watering. In the lowlands, a vegetable garden or garden will stand in the “water” during transitional seasons. If the slope is blown by the winds, then the plants on it will grow stunted and sluggish. The output will be the arrangement of the garden under a high fence.
The “transitional” lane between the garden and the vegetable garden is filled with shrubs. They are loyal to the shade of the trees. Under conditions of space deficit, planting trees along the perimeter of the site along the fence, then a row of bushes and a section of the beds is considered optimal. Flowerbeds decorate the entire area. Particular attention is paid to the "sidelines" garden paths and the area near the house.
Popular elements for landscape decoration
The dacha décor is divided into:
The second includes:
- Fences, benches, walkways and bridges;
- Night lights, lights;
- Waterfalls, pergolas, pyramids, and stands for woven plants;
- Arches, sculptures, ceramic animals and gnomes.
Some of these elements create their own hands, while others need to go to specialized outlets. Decorating a site is a creative process, for it will have to activate artistic taste and fantasy. Garden paths are made of wood cuts, paving stones or concrete, which before drying is treated with a stencil imitating masonry. Fences are designed and assembled independently of wood, plastic or stone. To natural elements include special designs from living plants:
- Labyrinths. The famous specimen is located in Versailles.
- "Tapeworms". This is the name of isolated shrubs that emphasize attention.
- Backstage. Otherwise, they are also called hedges that create a cozy corner, hidden from prying eyes.
- Topiary. Behind this name are cut curly bushes and low trees.
Separately, it is worth to work the night lighting area. Special lamps are installed under the roofs of the buildings, and lights are installed in remote areas. Around the perimeter is placed the lower decorative lighting. Lamps keep funny hedgehogs, gnomes-miners or moles looking out from decorative minks.
Making a suburban area opens space for imagination. Owners can “customize” any functional objects for themselves and their needs. Construction and decoration will take a lot of time, but you should avoid fatal mistakes in the design, which later will be difficult to fix. It is best to prepare a model or three-dimensional model of the site. This method of visualization will help to visually assess the merits of the project and eliminate its inconspicuous flaws.