Decorative pond in the country - a unique element of landscape design, an object for pleasant contemplation. In addition, the pond will humidify the air and improve the illumination of the garden, thanks to the reflective surface of the water surface. If you are thinking about arranging a personal artificial pond, you immediately need to competently approach the choice of style, lighting and decorative elements.
Choosing a place for a reservoir
The choice of place to create a reservoir depends on many factors: it is necessary to take into account the soil, landscape, relief, lightness, and the presence of vegetation.
|Relief and soil||Choosing a place for the future pond is better to stay on the site, which remains wet for a long time after the rain. It is obvious that somewhere in the soil layers in this place there is clay or loam. If the choice of places is limited, it is always better to choose lowland areas.|
|Illumination||The right choice of light will make it possible to avoid the strong growth of algae and the flowering of the pond. Ideal - in the afternoon shading reaches at least 40% of its area, and the total illumination reaches 6 hours.|
|Neighborhood with plants||The pond should be broken in the open, far from high vegetation, which will contaminate its surface with leaves, seeds, and litter.|
|Landscape||The reservoir should fit harmoniously into the landscape of the site. Often he settles in front of the house or near the gazebo.|
There is some specificity, if you plan to equip the pond with live fish: for example, with koi carps. In this case, it will be important to ensure for them the optimum water temperature, which depends on the breed of fish.
Earth and waterproofing work
You have chosen a place for the pond and determined what form it will be. Now it's time to dig the pit. First, the turning points and contours are marked with pegs. Then the terraces come off, 30 cm deep and 20 cm wide. You can form several levels of terraces to place plants on them.
Now dig the main bowl. The coastal slope should be approximately 45 ° C. The walls of the bowl should be narrowed down to prevent crumbling of the soil and reduce the load of water mass. The minimum depth of the reservoir should not exceed 60-80 cm: the shallow reservoir will completely freeze through in winter and warm up in summer, which will make it impossible to breed flora and fauna.
If waterproofing is planned with a foil, to fix it around the perimeter, a moat about 15 cm deep comes off. After the excavation is ready, its bottom is leveled, all stones and roots that can damage the foil are removed. The surface is filled with clean washed sand for 5 cm, a monolithic concrete slab M150 is poured in from above. After solidification, it is completely closed with a geotextile canvas. All these measures will help protect the waterproofing film from damage and prolong its service life.
The next step will be waterproofing - laying butyl rubber or PVC sheets. The size of the canvas is calculated from the total length of the pond and double the depth. To secure the canvas on the edge of about half a meter is enough. The sheet is laid out freely, securing the edges with bricks around the edge. To eliminate the negative impact of groundwater, a reliable drainage system is created, which is also included in the waterproofing system.
All the above waterproofing works are carried out before concreting, if such a form of waterproofing device is chosen. When creating small ponds, concrete works are first carried out, and then the surface of the concrete is treated in several layers with the Hydroshield mixture.
Making a concrete base with your own hands
Concrete work begins before waterproofing with the casting of a base plate of concrete M150, which is designed to protect the reservoir bowl from ground movement. On top of this plate, after it dries, waterproofing is laid.
After the base was dug under the bowl, a drainage system was installed, a sand and gravel pad 20–30 cm thick was poured in, a concrete preparation 10 cm thick was poured, reinforcement of the pool walls was performed. This will require fittings A 12 mm. The rods are connected by a binding wire in the form of a grid with cells of 20 x 20 cm.
Mortgage installation - an important stage of work. Before the start of formwork work, mortgages are set: bottom drain, nozzles, headlights, skimmers. Also laid electrician.
The installation of the formwork is carried out with moisture-resistant plywood 15 mm thick and with wooden supporting beams. High-quality formwork will help save material and other leveling tools.
Concreting is carried out with heavy brands of high grades with plasticizers. The walls are vibrated to prevent the formation of voids. It is more convenient to fill the bowl in 2 steps - first the bottom, then the walls. In order to prevent water from penetrating the cold joint of a leaky joint, a self-expanding bentonite cord, which is 6 times larger when exposed to water, fits into the joint when pouring.
The alignment of the pool bowl is made with plaster. With the help of plaster you can achieve perfect smoothness of the pool. The plastered surface of the bowl has no cracks, voids, cavities and other irregularities.
Devices for creating water effects and lighting
If initially the pond was planned using water effects: fountains, cascades, jets, then an underground, waterproof electrical cable should be brought to it in advance. Lighting and pump can be connected to the same source.
What elements of energy design can be incorporated into the construction of a pond at the cottage:
- A closed-loop fountain, where the pump from the reservoir drives water into the fountain bowl, from where the water flows back into the reservoir. Subsequently, the water flows back into the tank.
- The cascade or waterfall is better placed on the shore, where it will be in harmony with the alpine slide.
- As a backlight, you can use lamps located in the water, above the water and even embedded in the body of the fountain. On the contour, you can install garden lamps, rechargeable from the sun and giving light in the dark.
Water plants in design
There is a huge variety of aquatic plants. In order for the pond design to look attractive and function properly, it is necessary that the following types of aquatic plants be present:
- Oxygen generators - plants that produce oxygen. They carry out biological treatment of water and are food for fish (for example, for koi carps). These include turkish marsh, rogolnik, Uruta spiky, water star.
- Floating plants are used to decorate the mirror of the pond. They can be placed in containers on underwater terraces. The most popular are duckweed, vodokras, azolla, eochornia.
- For shallow ponds are used in combination with floating deep-water plants. They also land in containers. The most simple to care for are lily, nugget, upongeton.
- Embankment plants are necessary to decorate the contours of the pond and to protect the water from overheating. Usually for these purposes low embankments of plants are used: fern, thuja, barberry, juniper, etc. Other plants planted in pots look good.
Registration of coast and reservoir
There are a lot of ways to design the shoreline of the reservoir:
- use of large stones of different shapes. Marble, granite, sandstone, quartzite, etc .;
- the construction of decking and bridges of logs;
- design of the shore plates or tiles;
- special decorative film, immediately covered with a layer of gravel and imitating rocky relief.
Choosing a way to design a reservoir, you must build on its size and shape. The size of the stone should be proportional to the pond itself. Large stones will be harmoniously combined with a large pond, and small - with a small one. Ideally, the shape of the stones should be similar.
Large boulders are laid around the perimeter so that a part of the stone hangs over the water. No need to make a continuous coastline of stones. In the edging of the reservoir, plants and stones should alternate in random order. After placing all the stones they need to be fixed in cement, buried in the solution to a third of their height.
Reservoirs of strict geometric shapes are better wrapped with similar materials: tiles, logs, boards.
The design of the pond can be different - the main thing is that it is combined with the landscape of the site. A variety of stylistic solutions allows you to create amazing compositions that demonstrate the beauty of the water element.
The pond is an obligatory companion of Chinese gardens. Traditionally, the path to the Chinese pond should lead from large boulders, and the coast should smoothly descend into the water. A small wooden bridge was often thrown across the pond, and an arbor for contemplation and tea-drinking was set next to it. Koi and lotus carps are a typical element for the Chinese pond. The Chinese-style pond is decorated with bright and lush vegetation.
The French pond is a model of elegance and refinement and at the same time the rigor of forms. It attracts clear boundaries and neat shape. As a rule, French-style beaches rise above ground level. For this style characters fountains, cascades, steps and sculptures.
A characteristic feature of the Italian pond is its symmetry. A reservoir of regular geometric shape, usually with a decorative fountain or cascade type, is at the head of the garden. Since the Italian landscapes are regular, compositional, terraced, several levels can also be present in the pond. The banks frame many ornamental plants in terracotta pots, or in tubs and in beautiful containers. Often, Italian ponds are decorated with street lamps.
Japanese pond should be as natural as possible. You will never find in nature rectangular ponds, so they are not in the Japanese style. In the Japanese pond can be a waterfall, but not a fountain. In general, the art of creating a Japanese pond is similar to the creation of bonsai - all present, but in miniature. The pond should be like an ocean, a pebble on the shore - a rock towering over the ocean. On the shore, you can put a sculpture depicting a Buddha, a dragon, an animal or a bird, so that it is reflected in the water surface.
The English-style pond is much easier to equip, since it does not require clear boundaries. The lines of the English pond should be smooth. English reservoir is usually created landscape type - trees and shrubs grow in abundance around it. English ponds look natural.
A few care tips
After the device on the summer cottage pond and landscape design, the reservoir will have to take care. What is included in the concept of care:
- In spring, the filters and the pump are usually switched on in mid-April. Immediately need to carry out bottom cleaning and cleaning the surface of debris. At the same time, annual plants are planted.
- From June tropical plants are planted.
- Bottom cleaning should be regular and should be done with a bottom vacuum cleaner.
- In summer, the skimmer must be removed from the surface of the water surface.
- In the summer, filamentous algae must be removed. If oxygenerators do not have time to clean the water from green algae, you can use special chemistry - algaecides.
- Water lilies and irises need to be fertilized with fertilizers.
- All summer it is necessary to control the quality of water with special tests.
- In the fall, tropical plants are removed from the pond, placed in containers with water, and placed for wintering in a bright, frost-free room.
- In the fall during the leaf fall period, it will be more convenient to cover the surface of the pond with a fine net so that the yellow leaves do not sink to the bottom, and remove it by winter.
- In winter, pond water is drained. It is necessary to drain the water from all pipes and hoses. Remove and clean filters and pumps.
The pond at the dacha is prestigious, fashionable and simply beautiful. If you keep a large deep pond with fish rather troublesome, then build a small pond with your own hands within your means and under the force even of a small plot owner.